Curriculum models and instructional Methods
The MKU BSc Environmental Health curricula designed to be a learner centered and outcome based curriculum with a community orientation. It will employ both conventional lecture system and Problem Based Learning (PBL)/tutorials in its delivery;
The Mode of Delivery of the curriculum will include:-.
- Lectures:- will be given by the discipline experts outlining the areas to be covered in the course, explaining principles and concepts, and explaining the difficult areas related to any discipline.
- Small group sessions:- will include tutorials, clinical sessions, problem based cases, bedside teaching and out-patient sessions. Tutorials will be student led and they will work in small groups guided by a tutor. Appropriate cases/case materials will be used for learning at all phases of the curriculum with subjects integrated both vertically and horizontally throughout the programme.
Large group discussions/seminars:-These will be discussions between students and discipline experts on difficult content areas
- Laboratory practicals/clinical demonstrations:- related to ongoing tutorial problems to demonstrate specific and practical aspects of what the students are currently studying. This will help students acquire skills especially in the early years of the course.
- Community Based Learning and Fieldwork:- The curriculum is both theoretical and community based. This includes not only the units entitled community health, but also occupational health and other courses that may have a community based component.
Individualized and Self-directed learning:- This will include case studies and computer assisted learning programmes that will be administered through the internet
The curriculum and instructional methods that will encourage students to take active responsibility for their learning are in the integrated components of tutorial and PBL approach;
These methods will prepare students for life-long learning program will contribute to the society by providing accessibility to innovative and quality public Health education that promotes excellence in scholarship, research and equitable service to the communities
The component of the curriculum that inculcate the principles of scientific method and evidence-based practice includes:-
- The students will be introduced to research methods in their third year of study then in the fourth year they will be expected to write a research proposal and then implement the project.
- Carrying out research in priority health problems
Curriculum Structure, Composition and Duration
The Courses and Credit Hours offered for the BSc N Programme are as follows
Areas of concentration
The courses offered in the programme are summarized as below. The codes, titles contact hours are presented from year 1 to year 4
SUMMARY OF COURSE UNITS
|UNIT title||CODES||Contact hours|
|YEAR 1SEMESTER 1|
|1Inorganic Chemistry I||basic||BCH1103||42|
|3Human Anatomy and Physiology||basic||BCH1101||42|
|5 Introduction to Environmental Health||core||BPH1101||42|
|6 Communication Skills||University common unit||BUCU001||42|
|7 Community health and development||core||BPH2203||42|
|9First Aid and Emergency response||basic||BCM1203||42|
|12 Nutrition and Health||basic||BND1204||42|
|13 Computer Application||University Common Unit||BUCU002||42|
|14HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse||University Common Unit||BUCU005||42|
|YEAR 2 SEMESTER 1|
|15 Anatomy & physiology of food animals||basic||BBY2104||42|
|16 Ecology and Health||basic||BBY2105||42|
|17 Technical Design and Drawing||Core*||BEG1103||42|
|18 Introduction to Parasitology||basic||BML2101||42|
|19 Medical Entomology – Pest and Pest Management(change code)||Core||BBY2106||42|
|20 Drainage and Conservancy||core||BPH2101||42|
|21 Epidemiology I||core||BPH2102||42|
|22 Field attachment I (rural health)||core||HBCU001||42|
|YEAR 1 SEMESTER 2||42|
|23 Communicable Diseases||core||BPH2201||42|
|24 Liquid Waste Management||core||BPH2204||42|
|25 Water supply and quality control||core||BPH2205||42|
|26 Human Population and Health*||core||BPH2206||42|
|27 Food Sanitation and Safety||core||BPH2207
|28 Building and Construction Technology*||core||BPH2208||42|
|YEAR 3 SEMESTER 1|
|29 Health Service Management||core||BCM3105||42|
| 30 applied mathematics
|32 Hazardous waste management||core||BPH3101||42|
|33 Meat Pathology and Inspection||core||BPH3103||42|
|34 Environmental Health Impact Assessment
|35 Introduction to Pharmacology||basic||BPL3101||42|
|YEAR 3 SEMESTER 2||42|
|36 Environmental Toxicology||core||BPH3201||42|
|37 Environmental Health Information Systems &data management ,GIS
|38 Environmental Pollution Control and Management||core||BPH3203||42|
|39 Solid Waste Management||core||BPH3204||42|
|40 Non Communicable Diseases||core||BPH3205||42|
|41 Principles of occupational Health and Safety||core||BPH3205||42|
|42 Research Methodology||Common school unit||HBCU001||42|
|YEAR 4 SEMESTER 1||42|
|43 Disaster Preparedness, response and Management||core||BPH4102||42|
|44 Public Health Law||core||BPH4103|
|45 Port Health *||core||BPH4104|
|46 Environmental Inspection and Report Writing
Building &Sanitary Inspection and report writing (content)
|47 Epidemiology II||core||BPH4105|
|48 Entrepreneurship||University Common Unit||BUCU004|
|49 Development Studies||University Common Unit||BUCU003|
|YEAR 4 SEMESTER 2|
|50 Biotechnology and Health||basic||BBY4202||42|
|51 Introduction to Health Economics||core||BPH4203||42|
|52 Health Project Planning, and Management||core||BED4222||42|
|53 Health Education and Promotion||core||BPH4205||42|
|54 Field Attachment II – (Urban Health)||School common units||HBCU003||42|
|55 Research Project||School common unit||HBCU002||42|
Basic Biomedical Sciences
- The Basic Biomedical Sciences that contribute to the medical program are:-
- Human anatomy
- Medical physiology
- Medical microbiology
- The contribution of the basic biomedical sciences is integrated with the clinical sciences vertically and horizontally as follows:-
- Horizontal integration stresses the cross-relationship between parallel disciplines, such as physiology and anatomy, or at the clinical level, mental health and neurology.
- Vertical integration- stresses the inter-relationship between basic medical sciences and clinical sciences.
- By emphasizing the clinical correlation between the etiology, pathophysiology and biochemical and physiological basis of the diseases.
Behavioural, Social Sciences and Medical Ethics
The contribution of Behavioural sciences, social sciences, medical ethics and medical jurisprudence courses have been integrated in this curriculum as units to be taken in years one, two, three and six. The emphasis of these units is based on the recognition that human beings are bio-psychosocial beings who are in constant/s interaction with the environment and such interaction have direct influence on health;
The courses in the teaching curriculum that foster effective communication, clinical decision making and ethical practices include Communication Skills. Additionally, this is further enhanced in journal clubs
The medical school will adopt the curricular contributions of the behavioural sciences and medical ethics in the development of the science, practice and delivery of health care through a multifaceted approach including: continuously be involved in contemporary cutting edge research, continuous review of the curriculum to meet community needs, and adoption of state of the art technologies in the delivery of the program.
5.3.3 Clinical Sciences and Skills
- The specific objectives (knowledge, skills and attitudes) stated in the curriculum to ensure competence on graduation include: –
- To understand and deliver effective, humane, and ethical medical care in a diverse resource environments;
- To be committed to research, application of evidence based medicine and life-long learning;
- To be committed to community service and leadership in health care;
- To be able to foster an environment that promotes communication, collaboration, cultural diversity and internationalization.
- The areas of practice include Urban and rural attachment for the rural experience.
- The Specific Opportunities that are available for clinical exposure and direct participation in patients care include:
- Exposure to basic public health procedures will be learnt in the public health skill laboratory;
- Attachments in primary health care facilities and community attachments.
- The mechanisms that exist to ensure relevant community and public health experiences are through an examinable log book.
5.3.4 Linkage with Public health practice and health care institutions
- The curriculum committee formulates programs for postgraduate training, sets guidelines which are guided by the regulatory bodies and the Ministry of Health.
- Community attachment reports by the trainees are disseminated during participatory health education talks.
5.4.0 Educational outcome
- The following are the broad competencies (skills, knowledge, and attitudes) required of students at graduation
- Management of Public health problems and be responsive to the health care needs of individuals, communities, and populations.
- Management of health services and health information
- Provide leadership and participate as a member of a health team, in health services delivery at all levels
- Communicate effectively with patients, families, and health care team members.
- Understand the concept of professionalism, ethical practice, role recognition and be committed to successful professional practice.
- Participate in teaching and training of health personnel.
- Carrying out research in priority health problems.
- Adaptation to and participation in change
- Participate in policy formulation in matters related to health sector reforms in Kenya’s health care systems.
These competencies are clearly reflected in the vision, mission and objective of the curriculum.
- The graduates will be well prepared to manage existing and emerging health concerns as well as carry out research in health and provide evidence based solutions.
- The school will get information through reports from professional bodies and the ministry of health, the private sector and through feedback questionnaires to alumni.
- Post internships exposes graduates to the diversity of medical concerns and helps them identify the specific areas of post graduate training to specialize in.
- The school development will use feedback to review the teaching curriculum
5.5.0 Program Management
- The curriculum committee will include;
The dean, the HODs and other academic members of staff drawn from different specialties of medicine, internal and external development experts.
The committee’s Terms of Reference (ToR) are provided by the Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic Affairs) and include development of the draft, review of the draft, Quality Assurance, implementation, monitoring, and review.
- The committee is mandated to resolve conflicts of educational principles through consultation with University Management and other stakeholders.
- The decisions made by the curriculum committee are discussed in the school board and recommendations are forward to the Deans committee for recommendations and to University Senate for consideration, adoption and implementation.
The school will set up committees that are mandated to hold consultative meetings to evaluate changes of the curriculum, new innovations and mechanisms for implementation. The school will also provide resources for the implementation.